The following questions will work to test your knowledge of Ecology based on classroom lectures and information from chapters 1,2,4 and 6. The point of this assignment is to create different questions that will influence both our own knowledge and the knowledge of others who attempt the questions!
Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental Science!
This chapter provides an introduction to the important topics that concern the natural resources within the environment and the risk that human impact has these resources.
1. What does our environment consist of?
a) Living and non-living things
d) All of the above
2. An experiment includes:
a) An independent variable
b) A manipulated variable
c) A tested variable
d) A question
3. The tragedy of the commons is:
a) Complete resource depletion
c) Global warming
d) Traffic pollution
4. The Scientific Method includes one of the following:
a) A hypothesis
b) An independent Variable
c) An ecological footprint
d) A manipulated variable
5. What is biodiversity?
a) Different types of pollution
b) Diversity amongst species
c) The cumulative number and diversity of living things
d) The genetic makeup of different species
True or False
1. Sustainable development is the use of resources in a manner that satisfies our current needs but does not compromise the future availability of resources.
2. The scientific method does not concern scientific experiments.
|1. Natural Resource||a) Surpassing the earth’s capacity to sustainably support us
|2. Renewable natural resources||b) Sunlight, wind, wave energy.
|3. Nonrenewable resources||c) Substances and energy sources that we take from our environment and that we need to survive.
|4. Fossil fuels||d) Once they are depleted they are no longer available super passing the earth’s capacity to sustainably support us|
|5. Overshoot||e) Oil, coal, natural gas
1. Distinguish between the terms environmental science and environmentalism.
2. Create your own experiment by employing the steps of the scientific method. Describe how each step will be carried out.
Chapter 2: From Chemistry to Energy to Life
This chapter focuses mainly on the fundamentals of environmental chemistry. Also discusses are the molecular building blocks of organisms; energy and energy flow; photosynthesis, respiration, and chemosynthesis; major hypotheses for life’s origins; and finally, our knowledge of early life on Earth.
1. Organic compounds
a) Are carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds
b) Have a pH of 7
c) Contain only carbon and hydrogen
d) Do no exist
2. The human body is made up of mainly
3. Macromolecules can include
4. Organisms use all of these main sources of energy except
a) Inorganic molecules
c) Organic molecules
5. Bacteria can survive and thrive in all but
c) Clean and dry surfaces
True or False
- Less than half of Earth’s surface is made up of water.
- 4.5 billion years ago, no oxygen existed in the atmosphere, until photosynthesis developed in microbes.
|1. Acid||a) Nature or energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state|
|2. Photosynthesis||b) Pollution cleanup through enhanced natural biodegradation|
|3. Bioremediation||c) Light energy converted into chemical energy|
|4. Second law of thermodynamics||d) Can be gas, liquid, or solid|
|5. Hydrocarbon||e) pH lower than 7|
- Describe the three types of energy and how each kind works (potential, kinetic, chemical).
2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation: using plants to clean-up soils.
Chapter 3: Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology
This chapter introduces such topics as biodiversity and factors that may lead to extinction and/or population increase and decrease.
1. Genetic change in populations of organisms across generations is ___________
a) natural selection
b) artificial selection
d) biological evolution
2. _______________ has led to the great variety of dog breeds (selective breeding).
a) artificial selection
d) lack of pet control
|Biosphere||An organism’s use of resources and its functional role in a community|
|Community||The environment in which an organism lives|
|Ecosystem||The total living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit|
|habitat||Interacting species that live in the same area|
|niche||Communities and nonliving material and forces they interact with|
True or False
4. Geographic range, habitat tolerance, and population size are three factors that can contribute to rarity.
5. Rarity in any form appears to decrease vulnerability to extinction.
6. Describe the four primary causes of population decline.
7. Carrying capacity can be defined as ___________________.
a) The maximum population size of a species that its environment can sustain.
b) The minimum population size of a species that its environment can sustain.
c) How much weight each species can carry.
d) The population growth rate.
8. Demonstrate how limiting factors affect a species in any given environment. How and why do these factors affect population growth?
9. Extinction can be defined as ____________________.
a) When the dinosaurs disappeared.
b) Survival of the fittest.
c) When the last member of a species dies and the species ceases to exist.
10. Allopatric speciation is species formation due to __________ separation of populations.
Chapter 4: Species Interactions and Community Ecology
This chapter discusses the differences between the different Biomes within the world’s regions.
1. Competition is _________:
a) When multiple organisms seek the same limited resources.
b) When species fight with each other physically to obtain resources
c) When species produce a stable point of equilibrium.
d) When species use only small portions of their resources.
2. The tropical rainforest biome has:
a) Climates that alternate between very wet and dry seasons.
b) Climates that only include dry seasons.
c) Climates that include only wet seasons.
d) Climates that are very mild.
3. What percentage of the world’s forest do rainforest’s host?
4. What is latitude?
a) The distance from the sun.
b) The distance from the moon to the earth.
c) The distance from the primeridian.
d) The distance from the equator.
5. What do plants depend on to pollinate their flowers?
a) Other plants
b) The rays of the sun
d) Other animals
True or False
1. Soil is a good nutrient because its acidic, thin and low in organic matter.
2. In an Intricate relationship, plants depend on animals to pollinate their flowers.
|1. Biome||a) An organism such as a fungus or bacterium|
|2. Decomposers||b) Cohesive entities|
|3. Food Web||c) Hosts to different ecosystems|
|4. Producers||d) Displays feeding relationships and energy flow|
|5. Communities||e) Highest rank in the feeding hierarchy|
1. Suppose some cosmic catastrophe jolts the Earth so that its axis is perpendicular to the line between the sun and Earth. Discuss what will happen to the following:
a) presence of day and night
b) length of day and night
c) change in the length of the year in the N Hemisphere
d) temperature of the equator
e) seasonal variations at northern and southern latitudes
2. Describe why each hemisphere has different seasons?
Chapter 6: Environmental Ethics and Economics: Values and Choices
This chapter discusses the economic growth and sustainability of the environmental resources. It also identifies the influence that culture and worldviews have on the ecological environment.
1. Ecocentrism is __________:
a) An actions benefit or harm to the integrity of ecological systems.
b) A calculation of how much of the earth’s natural resources can be preserved.
c) A science that concerns the ecosystems of the world
d) A social movement
2. The Preservation ethic is______________:
a) People should manage natural resources responsibly
b) The natural environment should remain in an unaltered state.
c) Calculating one’s own impact on the natural resources of the world
d) An increase in an economy’s production and consumption of goods and services
3. GDP stands for______________:
a) Gross Dependent Product
b) Gross Domestic Paridigm
c) Genuine Dependent Progress
d) Genuine Depressive Product
4. What does a person’s worldview reflect:
a) Beliefs about the natural resource consumption
b) Beliefs about natural resource preservation
c) Beliefs about different religions
d) Beliefs about the meaning, operation and essence of the world.
5. Greenwashing is _________:
a) Consumers are misled into believing that companies are acting sustainably.
b) The promotion of recycling projects.
c) Watering plants daily
d) Taking part in go-green exercises
True or False
1. Culture is the knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.
2. Worldview a person’s or group’s beliefs about the meaning, purpose, operation, and essence of the world
|1. Environmental ethics||a) People who maintain that there exist objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and contexts.|
|2. Ethics||b) People who believe that ethics do and should vary with social context.
|3. Relativists||c) The application of ethical standards to relationships between people and nonhuman entities|
|4. Universalists||d) Criteria that help differentiate right from wrong|
|5. Ethical standards||e) A branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, of right and wrong.|
1. “We say no to uranium mining now and for the future. Our right to say no comes from our ancestors, our heritage, our law and culture, our Native Title”
~Jacqui Kantona, Speaking for the Mirrar
Describe the ethical implications and advantages that arise when mining the natural resource of uranium. Demonstrate your knowledge of this topic through providing your own personal views as well as an example.
2. Identify the meanings of preservation ethics and conservation ethics and discuss the advantages and disadvantages for both.
Having the chance to create my own test opened my eyes to the multitude of information learned in chapters 1,2,4 and 6. By developing questions to ask I was able to understand more thoroughly the concepts that were discussed in the classroom lectures and in the reading. Also by having the opportunity to design this test I was able to form connections with the material learned over the beginning of the semester!